10. Information Communication Technology : The new direction of progress

The term Information Communication Technology (ICT) includes communication devices and the use of those devices as well as the services provided with their help. The store of information generated due to the advances in science and technology is increasing at a tremendous rate. If we ignore this explosion in information, the knowledge that we have will become outdated

Devices used in information communication technology : Different devices are used for producing information, for communicating, classifying, saving/storing information, managing information etc. For example, the telephone is used for sharing information by conversing with someone.

The computer, which is the most important device for information communication, is considered to have gone through five generations, since it was first created. The computers used during the period between 1946 and 1959 are said to be ‘first generation computers.’ The ENIAC computer was made in this period. Valves were used in its construction. These valves were large in size. They also consumed a lot of electricity. That generated heat and computers would shut down many times. Today’s computers are 5th generation computers.

Important components of a computer

Memory : Memory is the place for storing data obtained from the input and also the generated solution or answer by the computer.

There are two types of memories in a computer.

  1. Internal Memory
  2. External Memory The internal memory is of two types. 1. RAM (Random Access Memory): This is created from electronic components. Any electronic component can function only as long as it is supplied with electricity. 2. ROM (Read Only Memory): The information stored here can only be read. We cannot make changes to the information originally stored here.

Operating system : This is a program which provides a means of communication between the computer and the person working on it. It is called the DOS (Disk Operating System). We cannot use a computer without its operating system.

Program : A program is a group of commands to be given to a computer.

Data and information : Data is information in its raw (unprocessed) form

Two main components of computers

Hardware : Hardware consists of all the electronic and mechanical parts used in computers.

Software : Software refers to the commands given to the computer, information supplied to it (input) and the results obtained from the computer after analysis (output).

Using Microsoft Word to create a document and write equations.

  1. Click on the icon on the desktop. 2. Select the ‘New’ option in the ‘File’ tab, and then select the ‘Blank document’ option. 3. Type your material on the blank page on the screen using the keyboard. Use the language, font size, bold, etc. options in the Home tab to make the typed material attractive. 4. To type equations in the text, select the ‘Equation’ option in the ‘Insert’ tab
  2. Select the proper equation and type it using mathematical symbols

Using Microsoft Excel to draw graphs based on the obtained numerical information

  1. Click on the icon on desktop. 2. Select the ‘New’ and then ‘Blank’ option from the ‘File’ tab. 3. Type the information which is to be used to draw the graph, on the ‘sheet’ on the screen. 4. After you have finished typing,‘Select’ the information and click on the required graph in the ‘Insert’ tab. 5. Analyze the information using the graph.

Using Microsoft Powerpoint to create a presentation

  1. Click on the icon on the Desktop. 2. You must have with you the material and pictures related to the topic on which you wish to make the presentation. 3. Select the ‘New’ option under the ‘File’ tab and choose the ‘Blank slide’ option. (You can select the kind of slide you need according to your presentation.) 4. Type the information you need on the blank slide and insert pictures. 5. Use the ‘Design’ tab to design your slide. 6. Use the ‘Animation’ tab to animate the slide and make a slide show.

Opportunities in the of computers field

  1. Software field : This is an important field. Having accepted the challenge of creating software, many companies have entered this field. The opportunities in the software field can be classified as follows – application program development, software package development, operating systems and utility development, special purpose scientific applications.
  2. Hardware field : Today, there are several companies in our country too, which make computers. They sell computers that they have themselves made. Others sell computers brought from outside as well as repair them and take maintenance contracts to keep computers in big companies working efficiently without a break. Plenty of jobs are available here. There are job opportunities in hardware designing, hardware production, hardware assembly and testing, hardware maintenance, servicing and repairs, etc.
  3. Training : The training of new entrants for various jobs is a vast field. It is very important to have dedicated teachers who are competent in the field of computers.
  4. Marketing : There are many establishments which make and sell computers and related accessories. They need good sales personnel who are experienced in the working of computers as well as skilled in marketing

Institutes at work

C-DAC, the welknown Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, situated in Pune, is the leading institute in India which conducts research in the field of computers. The first Indian supercomputer was made with help from this institute. Valuable guidance for making this computer (the Param computer) was received from the senior scientist Vijay Bhatkar. Param means the supreme. This computer can perform one billion calculations per second. It is used in many fields like space research, movements in the interior of the earth, research in oil deposits, medicine, meteorology, engineering, military etc. C-DAC has also participated in developing the ISCII code for writing different language scripts. (Indian Script Code for Information Interchange)