4. Climate




Because of the vast latitudinal extent of Brazil, it experiences wide range of climatic variations in climate. For example near equator it is hot while temperate type of climate is found near Tropic of Capricorn. Brazil gets rainfall from the South-East Trade winds and the North-east Trade Winds.

Parts of the Brazilian highlands extend upto the northern coast. The escarpments act as an obstruction to the winds blowing from the sea and cause orographic type of rainfall in the coastal region. Beyond the highlands, the effect of these winds gets reduced. As a result, the rainfall is minimal. This region is a rainshadow region. This region is called ‘Drought Quadrilateral’. Considering the temperatures in Brazil, the northern part of Brazil is hot while the temperatures in the southern part are comparatively lower. Seasonal variations are found in this pattern. Near the equator at Brazilian coast, temperature does not vary much.

In the coastal regions near the equator in Brazil, differences in temperatures are negligible. The winds move in the vertical direction in this region. Similarly, the convergence zone of the trade winds is weak here. As a result, cyclones are not formed. That is why tropical cyclones rarely visit the coasts of Brazil.

Most of the part of this country lies in the tropical zone. The equator passes through the northern part of the country. The temperature is more in this region. The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25 ° – 28° C . The climate is cooler in the Highlands . Because of the proximity to the sea, the coast experience mild and humid climate. The Amazon valley receives around 2000 mm of rainfall, while the north-eastern coast receives 1000 to 1200 mm of rainfall.


India’s climate is ‘monsoon’ type. The sunrays are perpendicular upto the Tropic of Cancer , which passes through the middle of the country . As a result, average temperatures are higher throughout the year. Also, temperatures increase towards the south. In winters, , the temperatures drop to – 40° Celsius in Jammu and Kashmir and parts of mountainous regions of Himalayas.

The diversity in climatic conditions of India is due to the latitudinal location and altitude of the place. The Indian Ocean and the Himalayan ranges exert a great influence on the climate of India and the origin of Monsoons.

Very cold winds blowing from the north are obstructed by the Himalayas. Similarly, the South–West Monsoons retreat from the Shiwalik and Himachal ranges of the Himalayas. Because of high temperatures in summers, low pressure area develop in Punjab plains and the Thar desert of Rajasthan. This attracts winds blows from the high pressure region in the Indian Ocean which start blowing towards the mainland of India. These moisture-laden winds bring rainfall. Because of the obstruction caused by the Eastern and Western Ghats, it rains more in the coastal areas. The rainfall reduces in the leeward side of the hills. These winds blow parallel to the Aravalis. As a result, rainfall is low in parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Later, these winds move towards the Himalayas. Their moisture- -carrying capacity increases. Orograpghic type of rainfall occurs because of the natural obstruction of the Himalayas. These winds return from the Himalayan ranges and their retreating journey starts. While blowing from the north-east towards the Indian Ocean, these winds bring rainfall again to some parts of the Peninsula. This is the Retreating Monsoon season in India. In general, the climate of India is hot throughout the year.

As the Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India, India is considered to be in the tropical region. India faces natural disasters like erratic rainfall, droughts, cyclones, floods, etc. frequently.

There are four seasons as per the Indian Meteorological Department.

  • The hot weather season
  • The season of rainfall (Monsoon)
  • The season of Retreating Monsoon
  • The cold weather season