Population is an important resource of any country. The qualitative aspects of a population are important for a nation’s economic and social progress. Lets study the population of Brazil and India.
India’s population is around 121 crores according to Census 2011. India is the second most populous country in the world. India occupies only 2.41 per cent of the land area of the world whereas it supports 17.5 % of the world’s population. India’s average population density is 382 persons per sq.km. as per 2011 Census.
In India, population is very unevenly distributed. Physiography and climate play an important role in the distribution of population. Due to the fertile land, plain land and availability of water, human settlements have been established in these parts for many centuries. Due to farming, industries and trade, the proportion of the population got concentrated in few places. For example, the northern plains of the country, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune, Bengaluru, Chennai, etc. On the contrary, in mountainous hilly regions, dry desert areas, dense forest areas, density is sparse because of inaccessibility, absence of facilities and tough life.
Brazil is the most populated country in the South American continent. With a population of around 19 crores, according to Census 2010, it ranks 5th in the world . It is also the fifth in the world with respect to area. Brazil occupies 5.6 % of world’s total land and has 2.78% of world’s total population. Therefore, the density of population is around 23 persons per sq.km.
The distribution of population is very uneven in Brazil. The majority of Brazilians have concentrated within 300 kilometers of the eastern coastal plain. Therefore, agriculture and industries have flourished well here. As a result, higher density of population is found here. On the other hand, the interior in the Amazon Basin is very sparsely populated. Unfavorable climate, heavy rainfall, inaccessibility and dense forests are the barriers to development of human settlements here. Therefore, settlements occur only in few places in the Amazon basin.
The central and western part of Brazil is less populated. The density of population in the highlands of Brazil is moderate.
POPULATON COMPOSITION :
- With reference to both the countries, the characteristics of population are prominently notable.
- The sex ratio of Brazil has been more than 1000 since decades.
- Considering the sex ratio of Brazil, the number of women have considerably increaesed than men since 2001.
- In India men outnumber women.
- In India we see fluctuations in the sex ratio since few decades. There has been a slight increase in the sex ratio after 1991.
AGE AND SEX PYRAMID :
- Considering the age of population, Brazil’s population is getting slowly older, but in India, the situation is different. The proportion of youth in India is more. This means India has a higher working population.
POPULATION GROWTH RATE :
- The rate of growth of population has reduced considerably in Brazil. However, this is not the condition in India. From 2001 to 2011, India’s population increased by 18.2 crores.
- India’s population growth rate was higher till 1971. Then this rate stabilized. The rate of population growth is now declining; but the population is still growing.
- It is observed that in Brazil, the rate of growth is declining and Brazil’s population may not increase in the next two decades.
LIFE EXPECTANCY :
- Increase in life expectancy is an indicator of development of that society. Improvement in health facilities, progress in medical field, access to nutritious food leads to an increase in average life expectancy. In most of the developing countries, life expectancy is still less. But with socioeconomic development, it is increasing.
Literacy Rate :