Examples of Settlement Patterns in India :

Geographical explanation

In India, we can see a variety of settlement patterns given the variety of climatic factors, availability of water, slope of the land and level of development.

Nucleated settlements are found throughout the plateau region of Narmada Valley, paddy lands in Bihar, U.P, Vindhyan Plateau and several other cultivated parts of India.

On the other hand, dispersed settlements are found in tribal parts covering central part of India, eastern and southern Rajasthan, Himalayan slopes and land with dissected and uneven topography.

Examples of Settlement Patterns in Brazil :

 In the figure 7.2 a and b, you can see images of two settlements in Brazil . One is from the Amazon river basin in Brazil while the other belongs to the coastal area. Observe the settlement patterns carefully and name the types of settlement patterns. Write a comment on their density and types.

Geographical explanation

The earlier settlements in Brazil were formed by the settlers from Europe mainly in the costal areas. Now the settlements have developed and are densely populated. The major reasons of development are as follows

Although the coastal climate is hot and humid, and flat land is limited due to rugged topography, the region has a good water supply and a large range of natural resources. e.g. Sao Paulo.

Sao Paulo has extensive area under rich Examples of Settlement Patterns in Brazil : soil which makes it ideal for growing coffee. It also has a large supply of natural minerals close by, such as iron ore and it also has a steady energy supply. The South Eastern area has a good transport system too. This makes the Sao Poulo area a nucleated settlement. See Figure 7.3.

Rural areas such as the north-east Highlands suffer from extreme droughts, which make it difficult for practising agriculture and hence settlements are sparse here.

Settlements become sparse as we move in towards the central part of Brazil. Given are the major reasons :

  • Area is covered by thick dense equatorial rainforests (see fig. 7.4).
  • The climate here is unhealthy and unfit for settlement.
  • Limitations on use and exploitation of natural resources.
  • Poor transport links in the region.

 Urbanisation in India :

The level of urbanisation is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to total population.

Geographical explanation

It is clear from the above graph that the growth of urbanisation in India has been slow. The level of urbanisation in India in 2011 was 31.16% which is quite low in comparison to developed countries. At the same time, the urban population is increasing expansion of the urban centres and emergence of new towns have played a significant role in the growth of urban population and urbanisation in the country.

Urbanisation has been more in the southern part than in the northern part in India. Goa is the most urbanised state with 62% population living in urban areas. Delhi is more than 80% urban. In the state of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Kerala urbanzation is more. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Rajasthan are some of the states with low levels of urbanisation.

Urbanisation in Brazil :

Look at the table on page 49. It shows the growth of share of urban population in total population of Brazil. Draw a line graph from this table. Examine the graph carefully and answer the following questions

Geographical explanation

Brazil is one of the few developing countries which is highly urbanised. Brazil’s substantial urban growth process is unique and one of the underlining factors contributing to its present-day rapid economic growth. Today, about 86% of Brazil population lives in urban areas.

Definition of ‘urban’ is not very clear in Brazil. In Brazil, rapid urbanisation happened mainly in the South and South-east with Sau Paulo emerging as a major, metropolitan and industrial area. Looking at this growth in few parts of the country, the government is promoting “Go West” policy which will reduce pressure on few areas where population is concentrated and will reduce regional imbalance in the country.

Study the choropleth map of Brazil showing the Statewise urban population of Brazil and answer the following questions

  • Which States (region) are the most urbanised?
  • Which States (region) are the least urbanised?

 Geographical explanation

As you can see from the map, urbanisation has occurred more in the coastal states than the states in the interior of the country. States like Sao Paulo, Goias and Minas Gerais have more urban population than states in the North. As population is less in Amazon basin and Brazilan highlands, urbanisation is also less. In this part, Manaus is a port on the confluence of the Negro and the Amazon. Urbanisation has occurred here.