8. Economy and Occupations

A table regarding the ownership of various sectors in both the countries is given. Like Brazil, fill the details regarding India and complete the table.

  • On the basis of the information about the ownership of various sectors in both the countries given in the table, can you infer about the type of these economies?

Geographical explanation

An economy of a country depends on the economic activities carried out in the country. You have learnt that there are 3 types of economic activities in an economy.

Economic activities in Brazil and India :

In figure 8.2, the pie-charts show the contribution of each sector in the respective country’s GDP and the percentage of population engaged in various activities. Read both the pie-charts carefully and answer the following questions.

Geographical explanation

In fig 8.1 we saw that India has a higher national income than Brazil. Brazil is one of the world giants of mining, agriculture, and manufacturing, and it has a strong and rapidly growing service sector. On the other hand, India is still dependent on agriculture, though service sector is also increasing in India.

Like the Indian economy, the Brazilian economy is also a mixed economy. Both the Indian and the Brazilian economies are developing economies. Their per capita incomes are very less as compared to the developed countries like the USA. It is interesting to note that though India has a higher national income as compared to Brazil, the per capita income of India is lower than Brazil. Can you think of a reason for the same?

Use the following table and make a polyline graph with the help of computer.

Per Capita Income from 1960 to 2016 ( in US $)

The United States is a developed country. The population of this country is well educated. This country has the strength of many patents, modern technology and mechanical strength. This country is far ahead of Brazil and India in terms of national per capita income.

India and Brazil are developing countries. These countries are progressing in the field of technological advancement, education and industry.

The national per capita income of the countries is low. India’s per capita income seems to be even lower as India’s size is very large.

Geographical explanation

Agriculture : In Brazil, agriculture is the main occupation of the people living in the highlands and coastal areas. Favourable climate and topography make it possible for growing a variety of crops. Rice and maize are the main cereal crops. Production of maize is largely concentrated in the central part. Commercial crops like coffee, cocoa, rubber, soyabean and sugarcane are cultivated on a large scale. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee and soyabean in the world. The major states growing coffee are Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. Besides these crops, production of fruits like bananas, pineapples, oranges and other citrus fruits is also done. Cattle, sheep and goats are also reared in the Savannah grasslands in the south. Consequently, meat and dairy products are produced on a large scale.

Mining :

 Geographical explanation

The eastern part of Brazil is rich in various types of minerals like Iron ore, manganese, nickel, copper, bauxite, tungsten, diamonds, etc. Inaccessibility, lack of knowledge of potential reserves of resources, dense forests, etc are factors which have led to limitations in mining in the interior parts of the country. Nevertheless, because of increasing demand in the country, mining work has developed well in the highland region.

Fishing :

Geographical explanation

Brazil has a sea coast of around 7,400 km and excellent fishing grounds off the South Atlantic coast. The meeting of the warm Brazil current and the cold Falkland current off the coast of south-east Brazil makes it a good fishing ground. Traditionally, fishing has been carried on by small groups of individual fishermen using primitive techniques and equipment. But now, large vessels are being used. Swordfish, shrimp, lobsters and sardines are mainly caught. The fish resources of the Amazon River are not exploited much and fishing only takes place on a small scale.

Agriculture in India :

Geographical explanation

Unlike Brazil, India’s agriculture contributes more towards GDP and also engages a larger chunk of population. Around 60% of land in India is under cultivation. Its enormous expanse of level plains, rich soils, high percentage of cultivable land, wide climatic variety, long growing season, etc provide a strong base to agriculture. In India, agriculture has been a long standing activity.

Indian agriculture is mainly subsistence type. India produces rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and millets as major food crops; plantations of tea, coffee, rubber and cash crops like sugarcane, cotton, jute, etc are also produced. India is also a major producer of a variety of fruits and vegetables.

Fishing in India : Fishing plays an important role in the economy of India. India is one of the largest producers of fish, both marine and inland. Fisheries help in augmenting food supply, generating employment, raising nutritional level and earning foreign exchange.

Fish forms an important part of the diet of many people living in the coastal areas of Kerala, West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Maharashtra. India has about 7500 kms of coastline. Marine fishing accounting for about 40 per cent of the total annual production of fish and being confined to coastal waters in the west from Kachchh, Malabar coast to Coromandal coast in the east. Major fishes are sardines, mackerel, Bombay duck,and prawns. On the eastern coast, the important fish are horse mackerels, clupeids and silver bellies.

Freshwater fishing is carried on in rivers, canals, irrigation channels, tanks, ponds, lakes, etc. Silver bellies carp (chopda) etc. are major freshwater varieities. About 60 per cent of the country’s total fish production comes from inland fisheries.

Mining In India : The Chhota Nagpur plateau in India is a big storehouse of different minerals. Mining is the main occupation of the people there. Coal is mined in Korba in Chattisgarh and in eastern Maharashtra. Mineral oil wells are found in Digboi in Assam, Mumbai High in Arabian Sea near Maharashtra, Kalol and Koyali in Gujrat. Reserves of mineral oil and natural gas have been discovered at the mouth of river Godavari. Stones like marble are found in Rajasthan and Cuddapah in Andhra Pradesh.

Industries in Brazil :

Major industries include iron and steel production, automobile assembly, petroleum processing, chemicals production, and cement making; technologically based industries have been the most dynamic in recent years, but have not outpaced traditional industries. Similarly, food-processing like sugar industries, cotton textiles, silk and woolen industries have developed well. Most of large industries are concentrated in the south and south east. The north east is traditionally the poorest part of Brazil, but it is beginning to attract new investment.

Industries in India :

  • Look at fig 8.4. Observe the logos given
  • Identify the industries with which they are associated.
  • Which raw material is used for these industries. Classify them accordingly.

From which part of India do they get these raw materials? Discuss and write.

The distribution of industries in India is highly uneven. This is so partly on account of uneven distribution of the necessary raw materials and power resources and partly due to the concentration of enterprises, financial resources and other necessary conditions in large towns.

Jharkhand, Orissa, adjoining Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, parts of Rajasthan, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu account for most of the reserves of metallic minerals. This area, therefore, particularly the north-eastern part of the peninsula, has a very high concentration of heavy metallurgical industries with almost all the steel centres situated here. Availability of large quantities of coal and refractory materials, along with cheap power from the Damodar-Valley Corporation and a number of thermal power projects, have added to the advantages. Rajasthan has copper, lead and zinc; Karnataka has steel, manganese and aluminium; and Tamil Nadu has aluminium metal industries.

Agro-based industries including cotton, jute and sugar are heavily concentrated in the raw material-producing areas. The forest-based industries including paper, ply wood, matches, resins and lac are in the forest areas of various states. The coastal belt of Kerala has a heavy concentration of coir, copra and fish canning industries.

Koyali, Digboi, Noonmati and Bongaigaon refineries are situated close to the petroleum producing areas, and Mathura and Barauni refineries in the interior, away from the coast and oil-producing areas. The distribution of cement industry is also highly conditioned by the availability of raw materials.

Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu produce the bulk of salt in the country. Mechanical engineering, electricals, automobile, fertiliser, and numerous consumer industries, which show little bias for raw material, have come up all over the country with heavier concentration near the big cities.

Trade : Read the adjoining table and answer the following questions.

What is balance of trade?

  • Tell the types of balance of trades.
  • In which country export exceeds import in all the years?
  • Brazil’s balance of trade belong to which type?
  • India’s balance of trade belong to which type?

Geographical explanation

Brazil mainly exports iron ore, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugar, tobacco, oranges and bananas while it imports machinery, chemical products, fertilisers, wheat, heavy vehicles, mineral oil and lubricants.

Major trading partners are Germany, USA, Canada, Italy, Argentina, Saudi Arabia and India.Trade makes up about 25% of GDP. See fig 8.5 below and compare it with India.

Geographical explanation

India mainly exports tea, mangoes, coffee, spices, leather and leather goods, iron ore, cotton and silk textiles while it mainly imports petroleum, machines, pearls and precious stones, gold and silver, paper, medicines, etc.

India’s major trading partners are the UK, the USA, Germany, Japan, China, Russia, etc.

Geographical explanation

Indian companies set up industrial centres all over Brazil and invested lot of capital. The Indian companies have invested in such sectors as IT, pharmaceuticals, energy, agri-business, mining, engineering and auto sectors.

Brazil’s footprint in India is smaller but important. The Brazilian companies have invested in automobiles, IT, mining, energy, biofuels, footwear sectors in India.